bwhealthy

Inspection

MOSTLY SEEN IN SPINAL CORD INJURY

Muscle Bulk

  1. loss of muscle bulk in LMN and late in UMN
  2. symmetry
Muscle grith

Fasciculations present in LMN, none in UMN

Muscle Tone

  1. flexion/extension, pronation/supination of joint through its ROM

Hypotonia

  1. flaccidity
  2. LMN lesions, spinal shock, cerebellar lesions

Hypertonia Spasticity � UMN lesion. Pyramidal tract involved

  1. limb moves, then catches, and then goes past catch (clasp-knife)
    1. test by rapidly supinating forearm
  2. Rigidity
    1. UMN lesions, extrapyrimidal tract lesion
    2. increased tone throughout ROM (cog-wheeling, lead-pipe)
    3. circumducting the wrist

Power UMN

  1. flexors > extensors in upper limbs
  2. extensors > flexors in lower limbs
  3. LMN
    1. reduced power in specific motor neuron distribution
      1. deltoids � arm abduction � C5 C6 (axillary)
      2. biceps � elbow flexion � C5 C6 (musculocutaneous)
      3. triceps � elbow extension � C6 C7 C8 (radial)
      4. thumb flexion � C6 C7 (median)
      5. wrist extensors � C7 C8 (radial)
      6. interossei of hand � finger abduction/adduction � C8 T1 (ulnar)
      7. hip flexion � L1 L2 L3 (femoral)
      8. hip adduction � L2 L3 L4 (obturator)
      9. hip abduction � L4 L5 S1 (superior gluteal)
      10. knee extension � L2 L3 L4 (femoral)
      11. knee flexion � L5 S1 S2 (sciatic)
      12. ankle dorsiflexion � L4 L5 (deep peroneal)
      13. ankle plantar flexion � S1 S2 (tibial)
      14. foot inversion � L4 L5 (posterior tibial)
      15. foot eversion � L5 S1 (superficial peroneal)
  4. compare between L and R
  5. GRADE
    1. 0 nil
    2. 1 flicker of movement
    3. 2 movement cannot overcome gravity
    4. 3 movement cannot overcome any resistance
    5. 4 movement is weaker than normal
    6. 5 normal

Special Tests

Pronator Drift have the patient stand with eyes closed and arms held straight out and hands supinated

  1. + ? patient cannot maintain this position
    1. muscle weakness (pronation and outward drift)
    2. UMN lesion (pronation and downward drift)

Fine Finger Movements ask patient to touch each finger to crease of thumb (show patient how) and speed it up

look for right and left differences, slow if UMN lesion

Clonus Ankle or Patellaer clonus in UMN Lesion

Reflexes

Deep Tendon Reflexes biceps tendon (C5-6)

  1. brachioradialis tendon (C5-6)
  2. triceps tendon (C6-8)
  3. knee jerk (L2-4)
  4. Achilles tendon (S1-2)
  5. hyperactive ankle jerk ? examine for clonus at knee and ankle
  6. absent ? use reinforcements (teeth clenching for UL, Jendrassik�s maneuver for LL)
  7. UMN ? hyperreflexia, but may be flaccid
  8. LMN ? diminished reflexes

Grading

0 nil

  1. 1 low normal
  2. 2 normal
  3. 3 high normal
  4. 4 clonus (sustained > 3 beats)
  5. note if reinforcements used (teeth clenching, hand grips)

Babinski�s reflex (L5-S1) + ? dorsiflexion of the big toe with/without fanning of the other toes (UMN lesion)